11 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2

"The whole body 11bHSD1 activity reflects mainly hepatic expression. Initial studies that relied on measurements of cortisol-to-cortisone metabolites in urine (23,36) should be taken with caution as indicative of 11bHSD1 activity, because several other cortisol and cortisone metabolizing enzymes are deregulated in obesity (36). Of greater importance is the finding of reduced hepatic 11bHSD1 activity measured by the conversion of orally administered cortisone to cortisol (23,37). Thus, 11bHSD1 upregulation in obesity seems not to be a generalized process. In both the whole body and the splanchnic circulation there are no differences between obese and lean subjects regarding cortisol regeneration rates (as measured by [2H4]-cortisol tracer), presumably because an upregulation in adipose tissue is counterbalanced by a downregulation in the liver (15).

As a mitochondrial P450 system, P450c11 is dependent on two electron transfer proteins, adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin that transfer 2 electrons from NADPH to the P450 for each monooxygenase reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. In most respects this process of electron transfer appears similar to that of P450scc system that catalyzes cholesterol side chain cleavage. [9] Similar to P450scc the process of electrons transfer is leaky leading to superoxide production. The rate of electron leakage during metabolism depends on the functional groups of the steroid substrate. [10]

Salicylate downregulates 11β-HSD1 expression in adipose tissue in obese mice and hence may explain why aspirin improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. [8] Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea can also potently inhibit this enzyme, [9] green tea is a complex mixture of various phenolics with contents varying with production and processing, some of the phenolics are known HDAC inhibitors that alter genetic expression. EGCG as usually consumed in green tea is poorly absorbed into the bloodstream, more research is needed to reach firm conclusions.

11 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2

11 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2

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11 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 211 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 211 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 211 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 211 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2