Biotransformation of some steroids by aspergillus wentii

Biotransformation of several monoterpene ketones, including carvone, pulegone, piperitone, menthone, and fenchone, was carried out by the locally isolated unicellular microalgae Chlorella vulgaris . The microalgal strain was isolated during a screening program from soil samples collected from paddy-fields of Fars Province, in the south of Iran. Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in 250 mL conical flasks, each containing 50 mL of BG-11 liquid medium and 20 μL levels of terpene substrates, incubated at a temperature of 28±2°C and illuminated continuously with fluorescent lamps with shaking at 80 rpm. The metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography and GC-MS. Chlorella vulgaris has the ability to reduce the C=C double bond of carvone to yield trans -dihydrocarvone and cis -dihydrocarvone. The cell line reduced menthone and pulegone to the same product and gave menthol. Study of Chlorella vulgaris with substrates of piperitone and fenchone showed no reaction in these substrates. Chlorella vulgaris MCCS 012 was assigned according to the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The DNA sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Chlorella vulgaris MCCS 012 was recorded in the NCBI under the accession number EU374170.

As you can see in the skin diagram, many structures are embedded in the dermis including:

  • blood vessels
  • lymphatic capillaries and vessels
  • sweat glands and their ducts
  • sebaceous glands
  • sensory nerve endings
  • the arrectores pilorum (or arrector pilli), involuntary muscles are sometimes activated in cold weather to give "goose bumps"
  • hair follicles, hair bulbs and hair roots.
Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer This is the deepest of the layers of skin, and is located on the bottom of the skin diagram. It connects or binds the dermis above it to the underlying organs. This layer is mainly composed of loose fibrous connective tissue and fat (adipose) cells interlaced with blood vessels. In females, the hypodermis is generally about 8% thicker than in males. The main functions of the hypodermis include insulation, storing of lipids, cushioning of the body and temperature regulation. Skin functions
  • Protects the body against physical injury.
  • Provides some protection for the body against numerous pathogenic microbes and chemical agents.
  • Helps to restrict fluid and water loss.
  • Helps to prevent excessive water absorption by imparting water resistance to the skin.
  • Is involved in temperature regulation of the body.
  • Is the body’s main sensory organ for temperature, pressure, touch and pain.
  • Provides protection from UV light.
  • Plays a key role in metabolism, including vitamin D synthesis and biotransformation of some chemicals. Lack of vitamin D can lead to soft bones and many associated problems.

Many people do not realize how much the skin does. As can be seen in the diagram of skin, your skin is a complex and important organ. It is also the largest organ in the body.

Biotransformation of some steroids by aspergillus wentii

biotransformation of some steroids by aspergillus wentii

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