Biotransformation of several monoterpene ketones, including carvone, pulegone, piperitone, menthone, and fenchone, was carried out by the locally isolated unicellular microalgae Chlorella vulgaris . The microalgal strain was isolated during a screening program from soil samples collected from paddy-fields of Fars Province, in the south of Iran. Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in 250 mL conical flasks, each containing 50 mL of BG-11 liquid medium and 20 μL levels of terpene substrates, incubated at a temperature of 28±2°C and illuminated continuously with fluorescent lamps with shaking at 80 rpm. The metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography and GC-MS. Chlorella vulgaris has the ability to reduce the C=C double bond of carvone to yield trans -dihydrocarvone and cis -dihydrocarvone. The cell line reduced menthone and pulegone to the same product and gave menthol. Study of Chlorella vulgaris with substrates of piperitone and fenchone showed no reaction in these substrates. Chlorella vulgaris MCCS 012 was assigned according to the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The DNA sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Chlorella vulgaris MCCS 012 was recorded in the NCBI under the accession number EU374170.
As you can see in the skin diagram, many structures are embedded in the dermis including: