Coopman classification of corticosteroids

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

Burkholderia arboris Vanlaere et al. 2008, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also ) ES0263A = R-24201 = CCUG 54561 = LMG 24066.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AM747630 .
Etymology: L. gen. n. arboris , of a tree (intended to mean of a forest), referring to the source of isolation of the type strain, the Morris Arboretum in Philadelphia.
Valid publication: VANLAERE (E.), LIPUMA (.), BALDWIN (A.), HENRY (D.), DE BRANDT (E.), MAHENTHIRALINGAM (E.), SPEERT (D.), DOWSON (C.) and VANDAMME (P.): Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. , 2008, 58 , 1580-1590.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 Aeromonas bestiarum Ali et al. 1996 was previously known as Aeromonas hydrophila genomospecies 2.
2 There had been past discussion about the validity of the separation of the two closely related species, Aeromonas bestiarum and ¤ Aeromonas salmonicida [1] . However, Soler et al. [2] using MLST with the gyrB and rpoD genes among the genus Aeromonas , provided initial evidence for the clear phylogenetic divergence between these two species to warrant their remaining as separate species.
References:
1 HOLMES (B.) and FARMER III (.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Aeromonadaceae , Vibrionaceae and related organisms. Minutes of the Meetings, 25 July 2005, San Francisco, CA, USA. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. , 2009, 59 , 2633-2637.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 SOLER (L.), YÁÑEZ (.), CHACON (.), AGUILERA-ARREOLA (.), CATALÁN (V.), FIGUERAS (.) and MARTÍNEZ-MURCIA (.): Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aeromonas based on two housekeeping genes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. , 2004, 54 , 1511-1519.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Coopman classification of corticosteroids

coopman classification of corticosteroids

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