Inhaled nasal steroids list

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

 
Normal Nasal Mucosa and Ostea of Maxillary Sinus : Click on pictures to enlarge !!!    
Foreign Body in the Nose:   This picture shows a plastic "hot wheels" toy in the right naris of a 5 year old.  The foreign body is wedged below the middle turbinate .  Attempts at removal in the emergency room was unsuccessful and the child was taken to the operating room for removal. 




Click on pictures to enlarge !!!    
This picture shows a wood chip foreign body in the nose.  It is located under the middle turbinate , deep in the middle meatus .  It was removed in the doctor's office under local anesthesia. 
Click on pictures to enlarge !!!    
Epistaxis :  Search PubMed for Epistaxis This picture shows prominent anterior (up-front) septal vessels which will bleed easily.  This type of nose bleed ( epistaxis ) usually occurs in children.

You can buy some topical corticosteroids "over-the-counter" without a prescription. For example, for dermatitis, you can buy the steroid cream called hydrocortisone 1% from your pharmacy. Do not apply this to your face unless your doctor has told you to do so. This is because it may trigger a skin condition affecting the face ( acne or rosacea. ) Long-term use may also damage the skin. On your face this would be more noticeable than the rest of your body. So usually only weak steroids are used on the face. Those which are suitable are prescription-only.

Inhaled nasal steroids list

inhaled nasal steroids list

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