Results : Autophagy took place in normal steroid-secreting cells with higher frequencies than in many other cells including the tubular cells of kidney and hepatocytes. The large number of autophagosomes or autophagic vacuoles allowed to outline the autophagic process in these cells. The C-shaped double-membrane profiles tending to demacate a portion of cytoplasm were referred to as pre-autophagosomes. So called early autophagosomes were the vacuoles enclosed completely by double delimiting membranes, containing normal-looking cellular components. The majority of sequestered organelles appeared to be mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The autophagosomes starting digestion were considered as late autophagosomes or autophagic vacuoles, the indications of which were the destruction of their contents or the presence of lysosomal enzymes demonstrated by a positive CMPase reaction. Residual bodies were frequently observed to be exocytosed. The quantitative assay revealed an alteration of autophagic activity in close relation with steroid-secreting states. The number of autophagosomes was one-fold higher in hyposecreting Leydig cells after 2 days testosterone administration, and three-fold higher in hyposecreting adrenocortical fasciculata cells after one dosage of dexamethasone administration. In addition, the autophagosomes showed a four-fold decrease in hypesecreting Leydig cells stimulated by LRH for 2 days.
Immediately after the injection, you may feel that your pain may be gone or quite less. This is due to the local anesthetic injected. This will last for a few hours. Your pain may return and you may have a sore back or neck for a day or two. This is due to the mechanical process of needle insertion as well as initial irritation form the steroid itself. You should start noticing pain relief starting the 3rd to 5th day. You should have a ride home. We advise patients to take it easy for the day of the procedure. You may want to apply ice to the affected area. After the first day, you can perform activity as tolerated. Unless there are complications, you should be able to return to your work the next day. The most common thing you may feel is soreness in the neck or back. The immediate effect is usually from the local anesthetic injected. This wears off in a few hours. The medication starts working in about 5 to 7 days and its effect can last for several days to many months. This procedure is safe when performed in a controlled setting (surgical center, sterile equipment, and the use of x-ray.) However, with any procedure there are risks, side effects, and possibility of complications. The most common side effect is discomfort – which is temporary. The other risks involve, infection, bleeding, worsening of symptoms. As with other types of injections, you should not have the procedure if you are currently taking blood-thinning medicine (Coumadin.) Side effects related to cortisone include: fluid retention, weight gain, increased blood sugar (mainly in diabetics,) elevated blood pressure, mood swings, irritability, insomnia, and suppression of body’s own natural production of cortisone. Fortunately, the serious side effects and complications are uncommon. You should discuss any specific concerns with your physician.
AB - To determine the effect of the ovarian hormone cycle on immunity; immunoglobulin-secreting cell (ISC) frequency and lymphocyte subsets were examined in the blood of healthy women. We found that immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells (IgA-ISC) were fourfold more frequent than IgG-ISC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Further, the ISC frequency in PBMC was highest (P < ) during the periovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle. Thus, endogenous ovarian steroids regulate the ISC frequency and this may explain why women are more resistant to viral infections and tend to have more immune-mediated diseases than men do.