These compounds give a permanent froth when shaken with water. They also cause hemolysis of red blood cells . Saponin glycosides are found in liquorice . Their medicinal value is due to their expectorant , and corticoid and anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid saponins, for example, in Dioscorea wild yam the sapogenin diosgenin —in form of its glycoside dioscin—is an important starting material for production of semi-synthetic glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones such as progesterone . The ginsenosides are triterpene glycosides and Ginseng saponins from Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer, (Chinese ginseng ) and Panax quinquefolius ( American Ginseng ). In general, the use of the term saponin in organic chemistry is discouraged, because many plant constituents can produce foam , and many triterpene -glycosides are amphipolar under certain conditions, acting as a surfactant . More modern uses of saponins in biotechnology are as adjuvants in vaccines : Quil A and its derivative QS-21 , isolated from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, to stimulate both the Th1 immune response and the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) against exogenous antigens make them ideal for use in subunit vaccines and vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as for therapeutic cancer vaccines but with the aforementioned side-effect of hemolysis . 
The set of monomers useful in the present invention includes, but is not restricted to, alkyl and aryl amines, alkyl and aryl mercaptans, alkyl and aryl ketones, alkyl and aryl carboxylic acids, alkyl and aryl esters, alkyl and aryl ethers, alkyl and aryl sulfoxides, alkyl and aryl sulfones, alkyl and aryl sulfonamides, phenols, alkyl alcohols, alkyl and aryl alkenes, alkyl and aryl lactams, alkyl and aryl lactones, alkyl and aryl di- and polyenes, alkyl and aryl alkynes, alkyl and aryl unsaturated ketones, aldehydes, 1,6-anhydrocarbohydrates, sulfoxides, sulfones, heteroatomic compounds containing one or more of the atoms of: nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, oxygen, and other polyfunctional molecules containing one or more of the above functional groups, L-amino acids, D-amino acids, deoxyribonucleosides, deoxyribonucleotides, ribonucleosides, ribonucleotides, sugars, benzodiazepines, β-lactams, hydantoins, quinones, hydroquinones, terpenes, and the like.
Talong is a coarse, usually branched, prickly or unarmed, erect, half-woody plant, growing to a height of to 1 meter. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, stellate-hairy beneath, and irregularly or shallowly lobed at the margins. Flowers are axillary, purplish, about centimeters long. Fruit is fleshy, smooth, purple, up to 25 centimeters long, extremely variable in shape, round, oblong, or cylindric-oblong.
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines for the edible fruit; the elongated variety, the most cultivated.
- Nowhere spontaneous.
- Cultivated in all warm countries.